名词主体论，动作打算论：文章以及段落都是由主题句和细节句构成的。主题句说明段落或篇章的中心，细节句是为主题句而效劳的。即，主题句指明段落及文章的方向，细节句则是支撑主题的详细事例，引语，统计，比方ures and copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.
Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholars’ ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students’ inexactness in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance, and by intention.
Plagiarism by accident, or oversight，sometimes is the result of the writer’s inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues. He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.